Designing power factor correction system to avoid operational problems

Neptune’s power factor correction system to prevent resonance condition in order to avoid operational problems and damage to capacitors
 Power factor correction or reactive power compensation forms a small but very important part of electrical scheme of any electrical network which source its supply from electrical utility company. It’s inadequacy in any form can result in power losses, voltage drop, increase in peak demand, untilised transformer and cable capacity. With most of the electricity companies billing in KVAH units, there is direct losses in terms of higher units if power factor of installation is maintained below unity.
Most common method of improving power factor is to install power capacitor banks at load side or mains. The power factor will be improved but depending on the type and characteristics of load the system if not designedproperly can interact with network to generate resonance condition and other negative impacts. Therefore, it is imperative to follow certain guidelines for design of power factor correction system to prevent resonance condition in order to avoid operational problems and damage to capacitors.
Power quality and importancePoor power quality, particularly high harmonic distortions, can lead to resonance condition leading to operational problems and subsequent operating losses. Some of the consequences can be:•Breaker tripping, burning and blowing frequent equipment failures, failure in electronic equipment, software glitches•High KVA demand, poor power factor, operational problem in DG supply on change overBurning or overheating of capacitors, transformers, wires, cables, bus bar and switchgear componentThere has been much discussions and interests in recent years on the subject of power quality, particularly harmonics under ambit of network power quality. More and more frequently industrial and commercial users are finding that they have to deal with the problem of “polluted power”. Many seminars and awareness programmes have been conducted to effectively deal with problems of harmonics. It is very common to hear about capacitor explosions, switchgear burning and tripping and problems because of voltage transients in electrical power industry.A lot has been done but still there are gaps in knowledge of harmonics in network and methods to effectively deal with them. It has to be understood that power quality and harmonics is one area of expertise within electrical discipline. Like other areas of power distribution, lighting and so forth the area also needs to be take care off while designing the electrical layout and reactive power compensation system. In existing system, power quality studies assume great significance to understand network power quality profile and negative impact they can have on network.
Neptune offer high-quality power quality studies for short durations, 24 hours to many days by high-end waveform and PQ recorders so that to comprehensively understand harmonics, voltage flicker, voltage fluctuation (sags and spikes), power factor issues during various load cycles of plant and office and their impact.
Importance of suitable design of power factor correction systemsMany consumers are not aware that power factor correction system if not designed as per load characteristics, can itself result and become a cause for major operational problem in the network. Some of the issues can be:Enhanced harmonic distortion leading to resonance conditionIncreased losses due to over or under compensation because of mismatch in-load variation and response time of power factor correction systemIncreased switching transients due to more numbers of steps switched through contactorsOperational problems, blowing of capacitor bank and other network loads due to harmonic resonanceLot of power quality issues in network becomes visible after installation of inadequately designed PFC system.
These issues may not directly suggest that PF system is responsible but the fact of the matter is that wrongly designed power factor correction system is one of the major causes of operational problems in electrical network.Neptune with experience of last more than 20 years and with installation base of more than 20,000 systems all over India and abroad offer their expertise in designing, supplying and installation of high-quality intelligent power factor correction and harmonic filtration systems. These systems are designed on the basis of power quality studies and analysis using advanced simulation tools. Further information is also collected from customer or project consultant. Some of these are:Characteristics and  switching time and variation frequency of major loads in the network along with the rating of main transformer and major load feeders where compensation is possibleIdentifying balanced and unbalanced load condition in networkType and amplitude of harmonic distortion with individual harmonic content.
Based on these inputs, Neptune offers intelligent PFC systems with appropriate detuning and tuning reactors switched through contactors or real time thyristor-based switching.  Possibility of hybrid system is also worked out which is combination of contactor-based and real-time TSM based. Balanced or unbalanced (phase to phase) compensation systems are offered as per type of loads.
Addition to PFC, if harmonic mitigation is required, combination of PF correction plus active filter is offered again in hybrid model. The systems are intelligent with GSM modem, data logging and various communication options for reporting and analysis.
With above what we achieve for customer is a perfect and most optimised power factor control. This results in enhancing power quality of network thus bringing savings to customer along with minimising lot of operational problems.

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Designing power factor correction system to avoid operational problems

Neptune’s power factor correction system to prevent resonance condition in order to avoid operational problems and damage to capacitors
 Power factor correction or reactive power compensation forms a small but very important part of electrical scheme of any electrical network which source its supply from electrical utility company. It’s inadequacy in any form can result in power losses, voltage drop, increase in peak demand, untilised transformer and cable capacity. With most of the electricity companies billing in KVAH units, there is direct losses in terms of higher units if power factor of installation is maintained below unity.
Most common method of improving power factor is to install power capacitor banks at load side or mains. The power factor will be improved but depending on the type and characteristics of load the system if not designedproperly can interact with network to generate resonance condition and other negative impacts. Therefore, it is imperative to follow certain guidelines for design of power factor correction system to prevent resonance condition in order to avoid operational problems and damage to capacitors.
Power quality and importancePoor power quality, particularly high harmonic distortions, can lead to resonance condition leading to operational problems and subsequent operating losses. Some of the consequences can be:•Breaker tripping, burning and blowing frequent equipment failures, failure in electronic equipment, software glitches•High KVA demand, poor power factor, operational problem in DG supply on change overBurning or overheating of capacitors, transformers, wires, cables, bus bar and switchgear componentThere has been much discussions and interests in recent years on the subject of power quality, particularly harmonics under ambit of network power quality. More and more frequently industrial and commercial users are finding that they have to deal with the problem of “polluted power”. Many seminars and awareness programmes have been conducted to effectively deal with problems of harmonics. It is very common to hear about capacitor explosions, switchgear burning and tripping and problems because of voltage transients in electrical power industry.A lot has been done but still there are gaps in knowledge of harmonics in network and methods to effectively deal with them. It has to be understood that power quality and harmonics is one area of expertise within electrical discipline. Like other areas of power distribution, lighting and so forth the area also needs to be take care off while designing the electrical layout and reactive power compensation system. In existing system, power quality studies assume great significance to understand network power quality profile and negative impact they can have on network.
Neptune offer high-quality power quality studies for short durations, 24 hours to many days by high-end waveform and PQ recorders so that to comprehensively understand harmonics, voltage flicker, voltage fluctuation (sags and spikes), power factor issues during various load cycles of plant and office and their impact.
Importance of suitable design of power factor correction systemsMany consumers are not aware that power factor correction system if not designed as per load characteristics, can itself result and become a cause for major operational problem in the network. Some of the issues can be:Enhanced harmonic distortion leading to resonance conditionIncreased losses due to over or under compensation because of mismatch in-load variation and response time of power factor correction systemIncreased switching transients due to more numbers of steps switched through contactorsOperational problems, blowing of capacitor bank and other network loads due to harmonic resonanceLot of power quality issues in network becomes visible after installation of inadequately designed PFC system.
These issues may not directly suggest that PF system is responsible but the fact of the matter is that wrongly designed power factor correction system is one of the major causes of operational problems in electrical network.Neptune with experience of last more than 20 years and with installation base of more than 20,000 systems all over India and abroad offer their expertise in designing, supplying and installation of high-quality intelligent power factor correction and harmonic filtration systems. These systems are designed on the basis of power quality studies and analysis using advanced simulation tools. Further information is also collected from customer or project consultant. Some of these are:Characteristics and  switching time and variation frequency of major loads in the network along with the rating of main transformer and major load feeders where compensation is possibleIdentifying balanced and unbalanced load condition in networkType and amplitude of harmonic distortion with individual harmonic content.
Based on these inputs, Neptune offers intelligent PFC systems with appropriate detuning and tuning reactors switched through contactors or real time thyristor-based switching.  Possibility of hybrid system is also worked out which is combination of contactor-based and real-time TSM based. Balanced or unbalanced (phase to phase) compensation systems are offered as per type of loads.
Addition to PFC, if harmonic mitigation is required, combination of PF correction plus active filter is offered again in hybrid model. The systems are intelligent with GSM modem, data logging and various communication options for reporting and analysis.
With above what we achieve for customer is a perfect and most optimised power factor control. This results in enhancing power quality of network thus bringing savings to customer along with minimising lot of operational problems.

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