Market share of efficient motors has been increasing across the world, and India is catching up with the trend faster than expected
Today energy efficiency is of dominant importance due to the ever-increasing electrical energy demand, increasing awareness around global warming, and the increase in prices of fossil fuels. Electrical motors are the most important type of electrical load in every industry. Moreover, Electrical Motors Driven Systems (EMDS) consume approximately 65 per cent of energy consumed by the industry.
Electric motors and the systems they drive are the single largest electrical end use, consuming more than twice as much as lighting — the next largest end use. It is estimated that EMDS account for between 43 per cent and 46 per cent of all global electricity consumption, raising about 6,040 tonnes of CO2 emissions.
The largest proportion of motor electricity consumption is attributed to mid-size L.T motors with output power of 0.75 kW to 375 kW. Asynchronous alternating current (AC) induction motors are most frequently used and consume the most energy. These motors are either sold to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and integrated into pre-packaged electromechanical products (such as pumps, fans, compressors, etc.), or sold as standalone motors that final customers then integrate into a specific application on site. Such standalone motors are used in large volumes, according to standardised input power and size specifications, with varying channels to market and integration into electromechanical systems.
Standards for energy efficient motors in IndiaThe Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) formulates the standards, and recently BIS has launched the revised energy-efficient motor standards IS12615:2011 in-line with international motor standards IEC 60034-30.
Major points in revised IS12615: 2011This is the second revision. The first revision happened in 2004. The 2004 version had only two levels – Eff1 and Eff2 having a scope of 2P and 4P motors up to 160 kw, and 6P motors of up to 132 kw. The testing methodology was also different back then. This standard got harmonised in 2008. After that the testing procedures and efficiency classes, i.e. IE1, IE2 and IE3 were defined. Going further, in 2011, India also harmonised with the global IEC standard as well as came up with its IS12615:2011.
The scope of IS12615: 2011 standard was revised/extended from 0.37kw to 375kw, over IS12615: 2004. The total band of IS12615: 2011 standard has been classified into IE2 and IE3 efficiency classes. Further, parameters like breakaway torque, current and full-load current are included. The standard also specifies that IE2 is the baseline motor efficiency class. Going further, BIS has created a road map stating that by January 2014, the scope shall be IE3.
Barriers in penetration of high-efficiency motors in Indian market
Lack of awareness among motor purchasers, regarding the potential for energy and cost savings by using more efficient motors within energy-efficient EMDS.
Company organisational structures that manage their equipment procurement budget separately from operations and maintenance budgets.
The fact that motors are often integrated into equipment produced by OEMs before sale to the final end user.
The major barrier is that SMEs have to change their mindset toward the life cycle cost of the motor. Every purchase in industry units needs to weigh the savings that can be achieved through energy-efficient motors. There is always a tendency in the Indian market to go for the lowest initial cost instead of analysing the life-cycle cost. However, as this cost is hidden, people tend to take the decision to purchase a motor, based on the initial cost which amounts to only 4 per cent cost which goes for purchasing. Almost 88 per cent of the total lifetime cost of the motor is because of the consumed energy or the running cost.
Hence every purchase and technical specification for these EMD systems needs to revised and updated with new standard, i.e. by including IE2 and IE3 motors in the specifications.
Preventing influx of inefficient motors as importsGoing further, if BIS standard like IS12615 are made mandatory under energy conservation act 2001, we can save our nation from being flooded with imported inefficient motors. In the last two quarters, there have been large imports of motors. In 2011, China, Korea, Brazil and Europe made it mandatory to sell minimum IE2 efficiency motors in their countries. We need to follow this example.
Global standards for energy-efficient motorsThe efficiency of motors depends both on their ratings and their efficiency quality, which can be characterised by efficiency classes. In 2008, in IEC 60034-30, the International Electrotechnical Commission introduced the precisely defined and open-ended international efficiency-classification scheme using IE1, IE2 and IE3 as the classification system. Globally, many developing countries the motor standards are harmonised to the international standards. Hence, with the international standard in place and all countries harmonised to international standards and with the same efficiency classes in all countries, solves the problem of export barrier.
BIS has formulated the testing standard IS15999, harmonised to the international testing standard IE 60034-2-1.
Global scenario of energy-efficient motorsAs per the study by international energy agency, general purpose industrial electric motors of between 0.75 kW and 375 kW consumed 4,700 TWh (68 per cent of the total for all motors); their share of global electricity demand is 30 per cent. The three economies with the highest electricity consumption for motors are China, the United States and the European Union, which collectively consumed 4,000 TWh (56 per cent of global electricity demand for motors); the addition of four more countries (Japan, Russia, Canada and India) adds another 1,200 TWh (18 per cent), which makes a total of 5,200 TWh (74 per cent).
Four major motor applications dominate the electricity demand of motors: compressors (32 per cent), mechanical movement (30 per cent), pumps (19 per cent) and fans (19 per cent).
In recent years, market share of more efficient motors has been increasing in many regions and countries. This was particularly the case for the United States, China and other countries, and to a certain extent, for Europe. Four standardised efficiency classes (IE1, IE2, IE3 and IE4) are currently recognised.
The United States and Canada are leaders in terms of setting motor energy-efficiency standards, as they introduced regulations for motors in the late 1990s. As early as 2002, China defined MEPS for electric motors. The European Union passed MEPS legislation for electric motors in 2009 as an implementing measure under the eco-design directive; these will replace the previous industrial voluntary agreement. Australia, Korea, Brazil, Mexico, Taiwan and some other countries with large electricity consumption from motors have already adopted MEPS, as have some smaller economies such as Costa Rica, Israel and New Zealand.
However, some large motor-using economies, such as India, Japan and Russia, have not yet adopted MEPS.
Energy saving with rapid industrialisationEnergy-efficient electric motors play a very important role and the motor manufacturing industries across the globe are manufacturing motors in-line with the international standards. One of the study conducted by International Energy Agency on energy consumption in electric motor-driven systems (EMDS) states that electric motors and the systems they drive are the single largest electrical end use, consuming more than twice as much as lighting — the next largest end use. It is estimated that EMDS account for between 43 per cent and 46 per cent of all global electricity consumption, giving rise to about 6,040 tonnes of CO2 emissions. By 2030, without comprehensive and effective energy-efficiency policy measures, energy consumption from electric motors is expected to rise to 13,360 TWh per year and CO2 emissions to 8,570 tonnes per year. End users now spend $565 billion per year on electricity used in EDMS; by 2030, that could rise to almost $900 billion.
The largest proportion of motor electricity consumption is attributable to mid-size motors with output power of 0.75 kW to 375 kW. Many different motor technologies and design types are available, but asynchronous alternating current (AC) induction motors are most frequently used and consume the most energy. These motors are either sold to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and integrated into pre-packaged electromechanical products (such as pumps, fans, compressors etc.) or sold as stand-alone motors that final customers then integrate into a specific application on-site. Such stand-alone motors are produced in large volumes, according to standardized input power and size specifications, with varying channels to market and integration into electromechanical systems.
Motors in the mid-size range are most commonly found in industrial applications, but they are also widely used in commercial applications, infrastructure systems and, less often, in the residential sector. In general, their main applications are mechanical movement, compressors, pumps and fans, which in turn have many types of sub-application.
ICAI’s role and scope of operationsThe International Copper Association India (ICAI) is a member of Copper Alliance and the Indian arm of the International Copper Association, the leading not-profit organisation working for the promotion of energy efficiency and sustainable energy in the country. The organisation creates awareness through different programmes in industrial sectors and also clusters, wherein, it has small and medium enterprises (SMEs).
Authored by—K.N. Hemanth Kumar,Chief Manager,Motors & Distribution Transformers,ICA India